By: Luis Beltrán Guerra G. - 16/11/2023
There seems to be no doubt that “the conquests” leave their marks, some good, but others not so much. “The traces” of Spain in the countries of Latin America cannot help but be affirmed that they are “undeniable”, among them the path to becoming “republics”, not exempt from “intentions”, one of them The Constitution of 9 December 1931 "Spain is a democratic Republic of workers of all kinds, which is organized in a regime of Freedom and Justice... The powers of all its bodies emanate from the people." Logic forces us to affirm that there must have been a “First”, described in the sources as “the one in force from February 11, 1873 to December 1874 with the Restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, the result of the military pronouncement of General Arsenio Martínez Campos. But let's not be surprised, since we read that there was a III, defined as "the democratic and federalist regime in force since August 23, 2013." Adding that "the events that gave rise to it date back to December 2007. The sources attest to Henry Buckley and his book "Life and Death of the Spanish Republic, published in London in 1940 and whose pages offer the opportunity to rediscover a past that continues to mark the present of Spain.
The “Motherland” navigates today in a convulsed world, from which no country seems to be saved. And of course, the lands that Spain discovered and conquered, leaving, logically, vestiges that feed our behaviors. That is, “heritages”, difficult not to be inspired by them, as has happened in Central and South America, including, of course, Venezuela where we were born and educated, fortunately in its golden age, that is, “the democratic one”, in force since 1959 and whose permanence and stability we assume. Today one of the most shaken countries and whose chapter will have to be inserted in its already long "hectic history." Surprise? In principle, yes, but as we delve into the past the astonishment is minimized. It becomes common.
Professor Ángel Lombardi, when referring to the book “Venezuela and its republics” by also an academic Diego Bautista Urbaneja, asserts that the latter assumes the existence throughout Venezuelan history of 5 post-independence republics: 1st. First 1830-1858, 2nd. 1870-1899, 3rd. 1909-1945, 4th. 1958-1989 and 5th. 1999-1013, but he intelligently writes after announcing this last “transition 2013…. And a question mark. Let us assume that with the conviction that we are not exempt from a 6th. And as the Italians say “E cosi via”. “Don Ángel” will think that our exaggerated “republicanism” must be classified as enthusiasm. But, additionally, “inheritance of the Motherland.”
In the publication “IESA debates” Professor Tomás Straka writes: How do you move, why do you move from one republic to another?, stating that “since 1999 there has been talk of the establishment of a Fifth Republic and that according to Urbaneja, there has been, effectively, five republics, but it differs from Chavismo on when each of them began and ended, according to a series of political and economic criteria. Furthermore, he affirms that with the death of Chávez the 5th ended. and a transition began. Where? It's hard to know. Perhaps a hopeful answer would be “a less complicated one than the present one.” The judgment will correspond to history, probably after a point and followed by what is read: “Venezuela was one of the three countries that, with Ecuador and Colombia, emerged from the collapse of Bolívar's dream “a large nation with a strong central government.” , “Great Colombia”, which for historians Ana María Roura and Felipe Arias “would today be a giant country with almost 100 million inhabitants” (BBC News Mundo, July 2020). The current chapter would doubtfully fit the judgment regarding the governments of most of the first half of the last century, led by the typology of the military as strongman, but generally benevolent who promoted, albeit partially, the oil industry, allowing some social reforms. Is this done in Venezuela today? A decisive majority denies it and has reacted against it.
The shakeup, it goes without saying that it is not exclusive to Caracas, since even Spain itself is debated between the popular party and the PSOE not only in close elections to popularly select the President of the government and the legislators, members of the Cortes, but also , in the streets where thousands of people have come to question the amnesty that Pedro Sánchez has agreed with those who want Catalonia to become an independent republic, separating itself from the Motherland. Will “amnesty” be at stake in pursuit of peace or is it equivalent to compensation to the current President of the government in exchange for votes in the Cortes for his ratification in office. It is read, for the sake of a definition, that the VOX party, which advocates for Sánchez's replacement, is described as a defender of the constitutional monarchy and opposed to the Catalan independence movement and Basque nationalism. One might wonder if the socialists and popular people manipulate the book by the Frenchman Maurice Joly “Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu” and in which the latter expresses “I observe, not without surprise, that you do not apply a measure that you once suggested to Leo X and which consists of having the ballots replaced immediately after the election, by those in charge of carrying out the scrutiny.” To which Machiavelli responds “Nowadays it is difficult, and I believe that this means should not be used except with the greatest caution. Furthermore, a skillful government has so many other resources at its disposal! Without directly purchasing the vote, that is, money in hand, nothing will be easier than making the populations vote at will through administrative concessions, promising here a port, there a market, farther away a road, a canal. And conversely, doing nothing for those cities and towns where the vote will be hostile.” Lawyer Joly seems to have come from a tour of “the Americas.” But the most worrying thing is that even in his time, around 1859, “beans were also cooked.”
A moved Venezuela has placed its hope for change in a woman, selected in a primary election and who has to sort through what could be described as the procedural mechanisms to compete in the presidential elections, in 2024 with the current Head of State. A challenge not only for her, but for Venezuelans themselves and the international community, including multinational organizations that believe that democracy continues to be an ideal system to govern, but to the extent that it is based on freely exercised popular sovereignty. And, of course, an efficient government for collective peace, achievable by the will of the citizens.
Sanity on the part of those who govern and those who aspire to be so is the ideal path. Crimes will be punished, but in a timely manner and by the agencies to deliver justice. Dispossessing ourselves of the past and harmful presents is still a guideline.
Let's do it.
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