Freedom of expression, of opinion, thought Art 4, 10, 11 Declaration of the Human rights and the Citizen of 1789, Art 19 Universal
Declaration of the Human rights 1948, Art 4 of the International Pact of the Civil Laws and Policies of 1966, Art 9.10 European
Convention of the Human rights of 1950, Art 11.13 Inter-American Convention of the Human rights, as well as the constitutions of the
democratic countries and the various relative standards. French Original version.

The illusion of the legal security under Fernandez de Kirchner administration
Anarchy becomes institutionalized

by Mario Sandoval [1]

No government has ever ignored, violated or betrayed the constitutional principles, agreements and treaties as much as this administration does. As a consequence, legal security is imperiled. The diplomatic grounds have no longer formed part of the rules of conduct and of the savoir-vivre which prevail in international relations. Justice is not independent, judges obey to power and laws depend on the fundamentalists in power. Judges, attorneys, prosecutors and members of the High Court of Justice [2] (CSJ in its Spanish abbreviation) are appointed by the power without complying with any conditions [3], while judges and government do not respect any rights set by the UN in this respect [4].

Thus, individual liberty and fundamental rights of human beings are constantly at risk, since the principles of protection of law and equitable process -recognized all over the world- are absent. Argentina is now going through, not only a dictatorial, kleptocrat and populist regime but also an anarchist system where the “legal order” is at the side of the strongest. Corruption reaches an alarming level among the politicians, the high rank officials of the government and the players close to power circle [5].

Argentine people, foreigners, national and international companies, investors as well as the representatives of foreigner government in Argentine witness the permanent violation of citizens and moral persons’ rights and those of third parties’. The large amount of diplomatic and business­related [6] conflicts (especially with the UK [7], Brazil, Mexico, US and Spain) make up more evidence of the absence of a respectful legal system of laws. Much nationalization in every area have been carried out: the post office in 2003, water in 2006, pension funds in 2008 and even Aerolineas Argentinas air company, sports activities (football for everybody) in 2009, paper for the press in 2011... in controversial conditions and results, almost irresponsible ones. During May 2012, YPF company has been expropriated by 51% by means of the law 26741 [8].

In order to protect interests, privileges or irregularities of those in power and their cronies, the government quickly puts into practice norms, legal decisions, emergency decrees, so that, in this way, it gives an apparent lawfulness to this arrangements (legal security according to current regime) and allows these kleptocrats keep on getting richer and richer. This is a model of polyarchy at the service of corruption and anarchy.

Since the Kirchner family has taken over the power, the policy of human rights has become the sole roadmap of their policy project, and all their national and international actions depend on it. Due to a change of ideological humor, of an incontrollable vindication [9], the guarantors of rights can change the rules of the game whenever they want. Political authorities “rule the legal norms or principles” [10] that CSJ backs immediately, with the aid of legal arguments, most of which are fallacious. Judges interpret the laws according to the circumstances, to the accused, to the political context, to the pressure of NGOs... and they turn themselves into philosophers of law by lawyering. In this confused, besmirched and uncertain context legal security is inexistent, is an imaginable concept, due to the fact that everything depends on the side where a person is located at that moment.

The break of legal security

Amnesty laws [11] and decrees of grace [12], proposed by former democratic governments and which were passed by congressmen in 1986 [13], were revoked and declared null and void by the congressmen themselves, 12 and 17 years later respectively [14], with the remarkable exception of the decrees of grace concerning the members of armed organizations, and the amnesty law of 1973 [15]. Even worse, the Supreme Court of Justice that had recognized the legality of those laws in many opportunities [16], declared them unconstitutional in 2004 [17] and legitimized, in that occasion, the retrospective principle, violating, with complete impunity, the basis and pillars of the respect to human rights and to the law in general. Extraordinary courts and a revolutionary justice made appearance; thus, 437 judges and members of the Judiciary, which held their positions from the 1970 to 1983 were sued by “Madres de plaza de Mayo” accused of having committed murders and crimes; as a result, at present, there are around 1200 persons at prison, tried or sentenced [18].

Lately, some judges linked to the government have been left apart since the interests at stake were more important than the respect to law. Thus, to protect Vice-president Amado Boudou, accused of serious crimes related to his duties [19] and prevent the justice from interrogating him, the Attorney General Esteban Righi [20] had to resign, and members of the government and those who support them obtained that federal judge Daniel Rafecas, in charge of the dossier, and prosecutor Carlos Rivolo were declared incompetent, and that an investigation were conducted by the Council of Magistrates. The odd thing is that judge Daniel Rafecas himself is in charge of sensitive dossiers related to the parody of trials to the responsible of violations of human rights under military government. We can infer the degree of independency, margin of actions and freedom of action that this judge will have to face!! The sentence is known before the trial, and it will be in accordance to the decision of their political partners, who had already guaranteed the vote to the tailored law which would allow make their wishes came true and satisfy their desire for revenge.

Other judges receive the protection of government, such as the federal judges Norberto Oyarbide [21], and Eugenio Zaffaroni [22], respectively related to financial and habit matters, and a complaint against them have been lodged, although no further action has been taken on the part of the Council of Magistrates as it happened with the case of federal judge Sergio Torres [23]; Federal judge Claudio Bonadeo, suspected of illegal enrichment [24], the Council of Magistrates and Anticorruption Office do not take into account the claims lodged against the judge; Federal Judge Sandra Arroyo Salgado, appointed by former president Kirchner, who is in charge of all the political dossiers which the government is interesting in, as well as the general attorney Alberto Natalio Nisman who thinks that political power overlook any claim or irregularity in the process, among other cases.

Judges in Argentina have become extraordinary citizens, and even, they are income-tax-exempt individuals. Some dangerous relationships (power-politics-justice-criminality) have been built, corruption is anchored in justice, and in politics, as well as in commercial, economic and social relationships; moreover, it has become an essential factor of professional, political and social survival... The perception of this reality of corruption appears in details in the report of Transparency International [25], of World Justice Project [26] of Anticorruption Office  [27], and they are a deep concern to Church [28].

The means of communication which are not under control of the Kirchner system, and which attempt to fulfill their duties [29] by journalist investigations, informing about this corruption and this general lack of security, are immediately attacked by the government, [30] by political men and associations close to power, [31] and they are investigated by the justice or by government prosecution. This situation is denounced by press national and international organizations [32].

Due to the social pressure (sometimes with violence) placed on State Institutions by radical sectors - formed by former members of armed groups of the 70s, by members of representative actors (media, culture, by justice, universities, anti-establishment movements...) and by social organizations associated to humanitarian NGOs supported by the power- the legal situation of a person, a company, a foreigner investor or of an important figure may adversely be modified; but, at the same time, an international legal commitment may be modified as well.

On the other hand, the State can offer services to friends of power. To set an example, federal judge Rafecas, after a denounce from a NGO, deems that there is nothing to investigate or any cause to be tried on the behavior of Gerardo Martinez [33] (former agent of information under military government during the 70s and 80s); but, at the same time, he sends to prison, investigates, deprives of their freedom to other sector of the society for the very same reasons.

Logically, everything is done illegally. Many dangerous criminals tried for serious crimes, received the authorization to form part of political activities, out of the penitentiary facilities. [34]

On behalf of human rights, memory and justice, the government persecutes persons through the use of vindictive slogans, it takes to court the critic-to-government media [35] with the help of retroactive criminal laws as well as to all those who represent the culture, science, medicine and businessmen, investors, industries, national and foreigner banks who, according to the kirchnerist doctrine might have collaborated or worked with the military during the 70s [36].

Is their goal to persecute the whole society, both civilian and military, that has not been associated with the “revolutionary terrorist adventure” of those years? An illicit association covered up for the government has been born.

Argentina is completely aware that it is violating the principles of legal security, the international norms, the agreements in relation to the protection of human rights and it makes dishonest legal interpretation of these documents. The Committee against torture and the UN Human Rights Council send to Argentina remarks, concerns, recommendations (see list appendix 1) on a regular basis for violation against the principles of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Despite the demands put forwards since the 90s, Argentina does not comply with the positive obligations to protect their citizens’ rights; on the contrary, it participates in violations.

For the judges who did not have the same luck as those under government protection, the sanctions are prison and forced or early retirement. Seventy seven judges [37 have reported the constant threats and pressures from the Government before the High Council of Magistrates. Nowadays, more than ninety judges, general attorneys and prosecutors have been tried by the Council of Magistrates and by Courts of Justice, and they were charged with Crimes against Humanity. The serious crime they committed was not to follow the orders of authorities, and to hold functions during the military government of the 70s, confronted to the radical organizations of human rights or ideologically opposed to the front-line political responsible. Lawyers and professors who are in the same situation are persecuted. Thus, Argentine government and current public officers violate the obligations that states have to comply with, and not only in relation to the justice representatives but also in relation to the whole citizens [38. Currently, there are many judges in prison (for instance, Biscordi in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Smart in Buenos Aires...), there are many that had to resign or that were removed from office (such as Biscordi, Lopez, Miret, Clapés...), some others are waiting for the extradition or political asylum (such is the case of Roque Romano), several have proceedings against them (see the whole list in appendix II).

The society, the citizens, the companies and the foreigner investors are hostages of the ideology, the interests, and the political humor of the government and its cronies. The (individual, political or economic) liberty depend on the good will of a judge, on the influence of the political power, on the demand of the figures, or associations close to the power. Anarchy is the rule in terms of Law in a politicized justice which responds to the kleptocrats in power. When politics, radicalized ideologies, history, fierce passions want to replace and substitute justice, this becomes into revenge and, in this way, the violation to human rights settles down.

Foreign governments, fervent supporters of respect to human rights, international organizations, NGOs, UN institutions as well as the defenders of the respect to justice and to the Rule of Law must immediately intervene to put an end to the violation of human rights in Argentina. An ad hoc group of independent expert made up by international legal experts shall be formed to give their opinion about the respect and the preservation of legal security. International justice cannot go on allowing the legal genocide, which is currently happening in Argentina, which is not other thing than the expression of the desire of revenge of some, and which is far from being the “victory of the justice”. No country in the world imposes the retroactivity of law regarding to criminal matters, or uses expeditious legal methods as applied by the Kirchner government, which do not respect any of the fundamental principles of justice which every citizen has right to.

Justice, judges, high public officers of the administration, men and women in power make up a criminal organization that respond to the corruption and violation of human rights. A government of judges at the service of injustice and the power-hungry has been created and remains.

Paris, October 20th, 2012, Mario Sandoval.-

Remarks, concerns and recommendations of the Committee against torture and the UN
Human Rights Council

Annexe1

  1. 2012, marzo, comunicado CAT, Relator especial de la ONU sobre tortura y tratos degradantes considera nefasta situación de prisiones en América Latina,
  2. 2012, Julio, A/HRC/21/XX/Add.Y. Consejo de Derechos Humanos. Informe del Relator Especial sobre los derechos de los pueblos indígenas, y recomendaciones,
  3. 2011, septembre, CMW/C/SR.168, Comité pour la protection des droits de tous les travailleurs migrants et des membres de leur famille,
  4. 2011, septembre, CMW/C/ARG/CO/1, Comité pour la protection des droits de tous les travailleurs migrants et des membres de leur famille,
  5. 2011, septembre, A/HRC/WGAD/2011/47. Conseil des droits de l’homme. Groupe de travail sur la détention arbitraire. Avis adoptés par le Groupe de travail sur la détention arbitraire No 47/2011 (Argentine),
  6. 2011, noviembre, A/HRC/WGAD/2011/52 Consejo de Derechos Humanos. Grupo de Trabajo sobre la Detención Arbitraria. Opiniones aprobadas por el Grupo de Trabajo sobre la Detención Arbitraria, N.º 52/2011,
  7. 2011, novembre, E/C.12/2011/SR.45 Comité des droits économiques, sociaux et culturels. Compte. Examen des rapports,
  8. 2011, mai 27, E/C.12/ARG/Q/3, Comité des droits économiques, sociaux et culturels Application du Pacte international relatif aux droits économiques, sociaux et culturels. Liste des points à traiter à l’occasion de l’examen du troisième rapport périodique de l’Argentine,
  9. 2011, juillet, CCPR/C/102/D/1610/2007, Comité des droits de l’homme. Constatations du Comité des droits de l’homme au titre du paragraphe 4 de l’article 5 du Protocole facultatif se rapportant au Pacte international relatif aux droits civils et politiques,
  10. 2011, décembre, E/C.12/ARG/CO/3 Comité des droits économiques, sociaux et culturels Examen des rapports présentés par les États parties conformément aux articles 16 et 17 du Pacte soumis avec huit ans de retard. Observations finales,
  11. 2011, décembre, Communiqué finale du Comité des droits économiques, sociaux et culturels a achevé les travaux de sa session d'automne de 2011. Il a rendu publiques ses observations finales sur les rapports présentés l'Argentine,
  12. 2011, avril, CMW/C/ARG/Q/1/Rev.1, Comité protection droits travailleurs migrants, Examen des rapports présentés conformément à l’article 73 de la Convention. Liste des points à traiter à l’occasion de l’examen du rapport initial de l’Argentine,
  13. 2011, août, A/66/272 Assemblée générale. Droits de l’homme et mesures de contrainte unilatérales. Rapport annuel du Secrétaire général. Pages 3, 16-17-18,
  14. 2010, marzo, CCPR/C/ARG/CO/4, Comité de Derechos Humanos, Examen de los informes presentados por los estados partes con arreglo al artículo 40 del pacto. Observaciones finales, preocupaciones et recomendaciones.
  15. 2010, juin, CRC/C/OPSC/ARG/CO/1, Comité des droits de l’enfant, Examen des rapports présentés conformément au paragraphe 1 de l’article 12 du Protocole facultatif à la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant, concernant la vente d’enfants, la prostitution et la pornographie. Observations finales et recommandations,
  16. 2010, juillet, CEDAW/C/ARG/CO/6, Comité pour l’élimination de la discrimination à l’égard des femmes, Observations finales et recommandations,
  17. 2006, mars, CAT/C/ARG/CO/4/Add.1, Comité contre la Torture, examen des rapports soumis en application de l’article 19 de la convention. Observations du Gouvernement de la République argentine concernant les conclusions et recommandations du Comité contre la torture (CAT/C/CR/33/1),
  18. 2005, mai, A/60/44 supplément 44, Assemblée Générale, Comité contre la Torture, rapport pages 13-17,
  19. 2005, diciembre, Compilación de observaciones finales del Comité contra la Tortura sobre países de América Latina y el Caribe (1988-2005), paginas 53-77,
  20. 2003, diciembre, E/CN.4/2004/3/Add.3, Comisión Derechos Humanos, los derechos civiles y políticos. Informe de trabajo sobre la detención arbitraria. Visita Argentina,
  21. 2003, décembre, E/CN.4/2004/3/Add.3 Commission Droits de l’Homme. Droits civils et politiques. Rapport du groupe de travail sur la détention arbitraire. Visite en Argentine. Version anglaise,
  22. 2002, août CAT/C/55/Add.7, CAT, examen des rapports présentés en application de l’article 19 de la convention. Quatrième rapport périodique qui devait être présentés en 2000. Pages 8-10, 12 au (14) 16, 75-78, 86, 103- 113, 114-115, 119,
  23. 1990, julio, CCPR/C/OP/3 Pacto International de derechos civiles y políticos. Selección de decisiones del comité de Derechos Humanos adoptadas con arreglo al protocolo facultativo. Decisiones 275, 343-4-5 paginas 11-15, 49-53,
  24. 1990, juin, A/45/44, supplément n°44, Assemblée Générale, Comité contre la Torture. Rapport et annexes pages 30-36, 114-121,
  25. 1990, juillet, CCPR/C/OP/3 Pacte International relatif aux droits civils et politiques Droit de l’homme, décisions du comité des droits de l’homme prises en vertu du protocole facultatif. Décisions 275-343-4-5 pages 10-14, 42-51.-

Situation of 94 magistrates and members of the judicial power continued by the Argentinian government (no exhaustive list)

Annexe 2

  1. ADAMO, Hector Carlos, ancien juge fédéral La Plata, accusé de complicité crime contre l’humanité http://www.envarelkadri.org.ar/index.php/otros-articulos/organizaciones/1193-memoria-una-causa-judicial­investigara-los-crimnes-de-monte-chingolo-por-rodolfo-yanzon-abogado-de-ddhh , et http://argentina.indymedia.org/news/2011/07/785375.php
  2. ALLEVATO, José Domingo, ancien juge. Accusé dans les affaires vol d’enfants sous le gouvernement militaire. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/ultimas/20-143311-2010-04-05.html
  3. ALI FUAD ALI, ancien fiscal fédéral Cordoba, accusé de crime contre l’humanité http://www.taringa.net/posts/noticias/7085500/Delitos-de-Lesa-humanidad_-Argentina.html
  4. ALVAREZ, Ana Cecilia, juge fédéral Rio Gallegos, accusée de « connivence avec des génocides» http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-202387-2012-09-01.html
  5. BAILAQUE, Marcelo, juge Sant Fé, enquête du conseil de la magistrature, rôle du magistrat sous le gouvernement militaire http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-166494-2011-04-18.html 
  6. BERGESIO, Conrado, ancien juge fédéral San Isidro. Démission. Accusé du retard dans l’affaire Clarin et son rôle sous le gouvernement militaire http://www.perfil.com/ediciones/2011/11/edicion629/contenidos/noticia 0068.html 
  7. BISCORDI, Alfredo, juge cours cassation. Jugement politique auprès d’une commission des parlementaires. Persécutions, « démission » http://www.lanacion.com.ar/994723-renuncio-el-juez-que-mas­se-enfrento-con-kirchner
  8. BLANCO, Manuel Humberto, juge fédéral La Plata. Dénoncé par les ONG proche du gouvernement, accusé de ralentir les affaires de crimes contre l’humanité http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-  166494-2011-04-18.html 
  9. BOGGIANO, Antonio, magistrat CSJ, jugement commission parlementaire, destitution, 2005, http://www.lanacion.com.ar/742932-quinto-cambio-en-la-corte-destituyeron-a-boggiano
  10. BRUSA, Victor Hermes, juge fédéral, Santa Fé (destitution par le jury de magistrats, en prison, condamné pour crime contre l’humanité) http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02_Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=6915&CI=INDEX100
  11. CALUPO de DURAŇONA y VEDIA, Ana Maria, ancien magistrat chambre cassation pénal, accusée de vouloir paralyser les dossiers des crimes contre l’humanité http://www.pagina12.com.ar/2001/01-11/01-11-  13/pag17.htm et http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/ultimas/20-101793-2008-04-03.html 
  12. CARO, Ruben Omar juge fédéral de Zapala, jugement conseil de la magistrature http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=6901&CI=INDEX100
  13. CARRIZO, Rolando Evaristo, juge fédéral, Mendoza, accusé de crimes et délits sous le gouvernement militaire http://www.losandes.com.ar/notas/2011/3/19/procesan-romano-investigar-delitos-dictadura­557108.asp
  14. CATALAN, Roberto, juge fédéral La Rioja, http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-201328-2012-08- 18.html
  15. CORDOBA, Luis Angel, juge fédéral Resistence, plainte auprès du conseil de la magistrature http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/arg/doc/margbelen5.html
  16. CORNEJO, Antonio Sébastian, procureur fédéral, Cordoba, accusé de crimes contre l’humanité. Détention. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-202437-2012-09-02.html
  17. DALMARONI, Romulo, ancien juge La Plata, enquête sur le rôle du magistrat sous le gouvernement militaire http://argentina.indymedia.org/news/2011/07/785375.php
  18. DECASTELLI, Hector Hugo, ancien magistrat La Plata, enquête pour complicité judicaire avec le terrorisme d’Etat http://argentina.indymedia.org/news/2011/07/785375.php
  19. DE LA SERNA, Hector Ricardo, ancien magistrat La Plata, enquête complicité judicaire avec le terrorisme d’Etat.
  20. DEMARCHI, Gustavo Modesto, juge, Mar del Plata (demande d’asile politique en Colombie, extradé vers l’Argentine)
  21. DUPRAT, Gustavo Andrés, magistrat, accusé d’aider les inculpés de crimes contre l’humanité
  22. FAGGIONATTO MARQUEZ, Federico Efrain, ancien juge fédéral de Campana http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02_Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=34671&CI=INDEX100 jugement conseil de la magistrature
  23. FARIAS, Ricardo, juge fédéral, accusé par le Secrétariat des Droits de l’Homme http://www.derhuman.jus.gov.ar/anm/b24.html
  24. FERNANDEZ, Maria Beatriz, juge fédéral chambre d’appel fédérale de Resistencia http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02_Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=6902&CI=INDEX100 jugement conseil de la magistrature
  25. FLORES LEYES, Carlos, fiscal fédéral, Chaco. Jugement conseil de la magistrature http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/arg/doc/margbelen5.html
  26. GARCIA, Emilia Marte, juge fédéral, suspendue par le conseil de la magistrature, démission forcée, accusée de liens avec les militaires, http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-68121-2006-06-09.html 
  27. 27-GARCIA, Luis Maria, juge, Chambre Fédéral de Cassation pénale. Dénoncée par le secrétariat des Droits de l’Homme http://www.derhuman.jus.gov.ar/anm/b24.html
  28. GARZON DE LAZCANO, Cristina, ancien juge fédéral Cordoba, accusations de collaboration avec les militaires http://www.clarin.com/politica/Nuevas-denuncias-jueces-juicio-Videla_0_358164259.html 
  29. GERMANI, Ricardo, juge de contraventions, persécution pour le fait d’être ancien fonctionnaire du renseignement militaire.
  30. GIROTTI, Gloria, juge Fédéral N° 1 Bahia Blanca, universitaire tribunal de discipline pour le fait d’avoir été magistrate pendant le gouvernement militaire. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/universidad/10-  183764-2011-12-23.html
  31. GORDO, Guillermo André, juge fédéral. Dénoncé par le Secrétariat des Droits de l’Homme http://www.derhuman.jus.gov.ar/anm/b24.html
  32. GUERELLO, Luis Carlos, ancien magistrat chambre fédéral La Plata, accusé de participation de crime contre l’humanité http://argentina.indymedia.org/news/2011/07/785375.php
  33. GUTIERREZ, Martín Francisco, magistrat par intérim à Rosario, démission suites aux pressions et menaces publiques du gouvernent.
  34. HARO, Ricardo, défenseur officiel, magistrat, Cordoba, accusé de crimes contre l’humanité. Détention. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-202437-2012-09-02.html
  35. HEJT, Ofelia Edith (décédée) soupçonné de remettre des mineurs pour adoption aux proches des militaires. Accusée de complicité avec la dictature militaire.
  36. HOOFT, Pedro Federico, juge pénal Mar del Plata, accusé de crime contre l’humanité.
  37. HORNOS, Gustavo, juge chambre cassation pénal, accusé de ralentir les affaires de crime contre l’humanité http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/ultimas/20-101793-2008-04-03.html
  38. INDA, Toma J. A, juge fédéral chambre d’appel fédéral de Resistencia. http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02_Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=6902&CI=INDEX100 jugement du conseil de la magistrature
  39. LEDESMA, Angela, juge chambre fédérale, dénoncée par le secrétariat des Droits de l’Homme http://www.derhuman.jus.gov.ar/anm/b24.html
  40. LIENDO ROCA, Arturo, ancien juge fédéral Santiago del Estero, accusé de crimes contre l’humanité
  41. LONA, Ricardo, juge fédéral chambre d’appel fédéral de Salta http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02_Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=6910&CI=INDEX100 jugement du conseil de la magistrature favorable.
  42. LOPEZ, Julio (démission forcée à l’arrivée du gouvernement Kirchner), 2003
  43. MADUEÑO, Guillermo Federico, juge, Bahia Blanca (acusé, décédé)
  44. MARCHETTI, Juan Carlos, ancien juge des années 70, accusé de crimes contre l’humanité
  45. MARQUARDT, Eduardo Francisco, ancien juge fédéral (décédé), accusé de collaboration active avec le gouvernement militaire, http://www.derf.com.ar/noticias.asp?cod_des=162999&ID_Seccion=33 
  46. MARQUEVICH, Roberto José, juge fédéral à San Isidro, Buenos Aires http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02_Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=6909&CI=INDEX100 jugement du conseil de la magistrature
  47. MARTINEZ, Ángel Nellky, ancien fiscal fédéral (décédé) accusé de complicité génocide http://el­guaviare.lacoctelera.net/post/2011/12/08/fiscal-la-dictadura-complice-genocidio
  48. MARTINEZ, Manilo Torcuato, ancien juge fédéral Tucuman. Accusé de complicité de crimes contre l’humanité
  49. MARTINEZ SOBRINO, José, juge fédéral, magistrat, vice-président tribunal fédéral. Accusé dans les affaires de vol d’enfants sous le gouvernement militaire http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/ultimas/20-  143311-2010-04-05.html
  50. MAYON, Carlos Alberto, ancien fiscal fédéral, accusé de complicité crime contre l’humanité http://www.espejonet.com.ar/diario/2010101/nieva.htm
  51. MAZZONI, Roberto Domingo, fiscal chambre fédéral, ancien secrétaire fédéral, Chaco http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/arg/doc/margbelen5.html
  52. MEDINA, Miguel, juge fédéral, Jujuy, enquête du conseil de la magistrature pour retard dans l’instruction des dossiers de crimes contre l’humanité http://criticadigital.com/impresa/index.php?secc=nota&nid=35807
  53. MITCHELL, Wagner Gustavo, ancien magistrat, démission forcée, accusé de complicité avec les militaires, de remettre des enfants aux proches de militaires de manière irrégulière. Persécution par les ONG
  54. MIRET CLAPÉS, Luis Francisco, juge, Mendoza, destitution, procès devant le jury des magistrats http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02_Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=42671&CI=INDEX100
  55. MOLINA, Luis Eduardo, magistrat (défenseur officiel), Cordoba, accusé de crimes contre l’humanité. Détention. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-202437-2012-09-02.html
  56. MOLINÉ O’CONNER, Eduardo, magistrat CSJ, jugement politique commission parlementaire, 2003.
  57. NAZARENO, Julio, magistrat à la CSJ (démission forcée à l’arrivée du gouvernement Kirchner), 2003
  58. NIEVA WOODGATE, Federico Guillermo, juge pénal, Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires (jugement politique commission chambre bicaméral Buenos Aires)
  59. OBLIGADO, Daniel, juge fédéral, dénoncé par le secrétariat des droits de l’homme http://www.derhuman.jus.gov.ar/anm/b24.html
  60. OLEA, María Laura, magistrate cour cassation : Procédure d’enquête pour être l’avocate de son père, un militaire accusé de crime de lése humanité avec autorisation du procureur, alors qu’elle est magistrat. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-184574-2012-01-02.html
  61. OLIVERA PASTOR, Carlos, juge, Jujuy, procédure Conseil de la Magistrature « démission»
  62. OLMEDO de ARZUAGA, Santiago David, ancien magistrat fédéral Santiago del Estero, accusé de crimes contre l’humanité.
  63. OTERO ALVAREZ, Carlos, juge fédéral, Cordoba (« démission en 2009 », enquête conseil de la magistrature), accusé crimes contre l’humanité. Détention. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-  202437-2012-09-02.html
  64. PETRA RECABARREN, Guillermo Max, juge fédéral, Mendoza, procès en cours conseil de la magistrature. Accusé de crimes contre l’humanité.
  65. PETRA FERNANDEZ, Julio. Juge fédéral Mendoza. Démission afin d’éviter le procès devant le conseil de la magistrature. Accusé d’aider le juge Romano.
  66. PONS, Martha Delia (décédée), juge de mineurs, accusé de complicité avec la dictature
  67. PRADAS, Rodolfo. Juge, Mar del Plata, accusé d’anomalies de procédures dans les cas de crimes contre l’humanité
  68. PUGA, Miguel Angel, juge fédéral Cordoba. Accusé crimes contre l’humanité. Détention. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-202437-2012-09-02.html
  69. RABBI-BALDI CABANILLAS, Renato, justice fédéral, Jujuy. Accusé du soutien à l’ex juge Olivera Pastor.
  70. RAIMUNDI, Antonio Andrés, ancien fiscal fédéral La Plata, http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-  92191-2007-09-29.html et http://icad-latinoamerica.blogspot.fr/2007/09/jueces-argentinos-en-el-banquillo­de.html
  71. RESKA, Domingo, magistrat fédéral, Resistence, dénoncé auprès du conseil de la magistrature http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/arg/doc/margbelen5.html
  72. REY, José Luis, ancien juge de Misiones, accusé dans le cadre d’espionnage politique. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-197481-2012-06-29.html
  73. RIGGI, Eduardo, juge cour de cassation, dénoncé par le secrétariat des Droits de l’Homme, accusé d’autoriser la liberté des auteurs de crime contre l’humanitéhttp://www.derhuman.jus.gov.ar/anm/b24.html
  74. RIVAROLA, Guillermo, ancien magistrat, jugement rôle sous le gouvernement militaire http://www.espejonet.com.ar/diario/2010101/nieva.htm
  75. ROJAS, Diómenes. Juge chambre fédéral, Resistence, dénoncé auprès du conseil de la magistrature http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/arg/doc/margbelen5.html
  76. ROQUE ROMANO, Otilio Irineo, juge, Mendoza (« démission », puis procès devant le jury de magistrat, asile politique au Chili) http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02_Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=48983&CI=INDEX100
  77. ROMERO VICTORICA, Juan Martin, ex fiscal, accusé d’aider un militaire recherché par la justice et d’avoir des liens avec le gouvernement militaire.
  78. RUEDA, Luis, magistrat. Président de la chambre fédéral, Cordoba. Accusé de collaboration active avec les services de renseignement de la période militaire. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-166494-  2011-04-18.html
  79. RUSSO, Leopoldo José, ancien juge fédéral (décédé), collaboration avec les accusés de crimes contre l’humanité http://www.apdhlaplata.org.ar/prensa/2002/231002.htm , et http://www.lafogata.org/02argentina/11argentina/russo.htm
  80. SANCHEZ FREYTES, Alejandro, juge fédéral Cordoba. Accusé de favoritisme envers les auteurs présumés des crimes contre l’humanité http://argentina.indymedia.org/news/2011/07/785375.php
  81. SARMIENTO, Rafael, ancien juge fédéral, jugement rôle sous le gouvernement militaire http://www.espejonet.com.ar/diario/2010101/nieva.htm
  82. SIERRA, Hugo Mario, ancien magistrat fédéral Bahia Blanca, accusé de crimes contre l’humanité (détention) http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-176749-2011-09-14.html
  83. SODERO NIVEVAS, Victor, magistrat, président du Supérieur Tribunal de Justice de Rio Negro. Le gouverneur de cette province menace le juge d’un jugement politique. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/ultimas/20-184739-2012-01-04.html
  84. SORIA, Pedro Luis (h), ancien juge La Plata, accusé de crimes contre l’humanité, prison. http://up9delaplata.blogspot.fr/2012/05/indagaron-al-ex-juez-platense-pedro.html
  85. SMART, Jaime, juge chambre fédéral, ministre du gouvernement Bs As (prison)
  86. TERAN, Federico Felipe, juge fédéral de Tucuman, http://www.pjn.gov.ar/02_Central/ViewDoc.Asp?Doc=6900&CI=INDEX100 jugement conseil de la magistrature.
  87. TORINO, Juan María, ancien juge fédéral, accusé de complicité des crimes contre l’humanité http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-191000-2012-04-03.html
  88. TORRES, Ana María, magistrat, secrétaire fiscale générale de Resistencia (cessation par procureur général de la nation Estéban Righi)
  89. TRAGAN, Guillermo, juge fédéral, dénoncé par le Secrétariat des Droits de l’Homme http://www.derhuman.jus.gov.ar/anm/b24.html
  90. VAZQUEZ, Adolfo, magistrat (démission forcée à l’arrivée du gouvernement Kirchner), 2003
  91. VELAZQUEZ, Juan Leopoldo, magistrat, président du Tribunal oral Criminel Fédéral, Bahia Blanca http://nohuboderecho.blogspot.com/2011/04/texto-de-la-recusacion-del-presidente.html
  92. VILLAFUERTE RUSSO, Carlos. Juge fédéral San Nicolas, dénoncé pour ralentir les dossiers concernant les crimes contre l’humanité
  93. YACOBUCCI, Guillermo, magistrat, enquête conseil de la magistrature, amitié avec des accusés de crimes contre l’humanité. Dénoncé par le secrétariat des droits de l’homme.
  94. ZAMBONI LEDESMA, Adolfo, juge fédéral, de Cordoba, accusé, (décédé)

With this list, it is necessary to add:

  1. Inculpation of 437 magistrates and civils servant of the judicial power which in station between 1976 and 1983, were denounced near federal justice by Association Mothers of the Place of May, in 1991 and 2001 respectively
    http://www.lafogata.org/proyecto/judicial.htm
    http://www.elmartillojudicial.com.ar/2011/05/03/denuncia-de-hebe-de-bonafini/
    http://www.madres.org/proyecto/archivopoder judicial.htm
  2. 77 magistrates seized the Superior council of the magistrature for the constant threats and pressures which they undergo on behalf of the government.
    http://www.asocmagistra.org.ar/comunicaciones_view.php?cID=245&tID=3
    et
    http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1118834-piden-a-la-corte-que-repudie-una-denuncia-del-gobierno

Paris, October 20th, 2012, Mario Sandoval

  1. Mario Sandoval was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the 80s he settled in France where he has continued his training and his activities in political sciences and philosophy. He occupied functions in the private and public sectors, higher education, as well as consulting at the national and international levels in the fields of international relations and geopolitics. France become his country of citizenship, and of a known public trajectory.
  2. The president of the CSJ, former Professor of Business Law, was never magistrate, judge or prosecutor. Another member of the CSJ is as for him on the list of the missing people!!! http://www.periodicotribuna.com.ar/5340-carmen­argibay.html
  3. Inexistence of a school of the Judiciary, a training, or a contest to hold these positions
  4. See below:
    1. RES 40/32 http://www.un.org/french/documents/view doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/40/32;Lang=F
    2. RES 40/146 http://www.un.org/french/documents/view doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/40/146 29/11/1985
    3. RES 34/169 http://www.un.org/french/documents/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/34/169 17/12/1979
      http://www2.ohchr.org/french/law/code de conduite.htm
    4. Principes fondamentaux l'indépendance de la magistrature, Haut-Commissariat des Nations Unies aux Droits de l’Homme http://www2.ohchr.org/french/law/magistrature.htm,
    5. Renforcement à la conduite des magistrats http://www.unodc.org/pdf/corruption/corruption judicial res f.pdf
    6. Règles minima concernant l'administration de la justice pénale 1996, mai. Règles et Normes des Nations Unies dans le domaine de la prévention du crime et de la justice pénale, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/V96/818/39/IMG/V9681839.pdf?OpenElement            et
      http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/commissions/CCPCJ/session/05.html
  5. http://www.clarin.com/politica/Iglesia-preocupada-niveles-importantes-corrupcion 0 680932125.html , http://www.lacedille.com.ar/?p=3779, http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1473545-por-ahora-no-hay-avances-contra-los­funcionarios
  6. WTO 2012, Argentine current regulations with the WTO dispute http://www.wto.org/french/tratop_f/dispu_f/dispu_by_country_f.htm#arg ,Japan and the United States engaging proceedings against Argentina http://www.wto.org/french/news_f/news12_f/ds444_445rfc_21aug12_f.htm
  7. Claims of the Falkland Islands and problems with British companies established in Argentina
  8. Law 26741 http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/195000-199999/196894/norma.htm , and Decree 660 the 04th /05/2012 http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/195000-199999/196895/norma.htm
  9. http://www.tucumanoticias.com.ar/noticia.asp?id=82306 "Los jueces van a tener que procesarme a mí, porque no voy a permitir que ningún gendarme tenga que resolver un conflicto del que es responsable el gobierno local". “Gendarmería dejará de intervenir en conflictos provinciales”
  10. http://www.derhuman.jus.gov.ar/comunicados/2012/7eneroindex.html Government disagrees with the court decisions
  11. Since the 70s, there were three amnesty laws under democratic governments and 14 decree of grace for civilians convicted of terrorism or armed groups as well as military post during the period 76-83
  12. Decree of grace 11/73, 1002 à 1005 du 06/07/89, 2741 à 2746 du 29/12/ 1990, 1228, 1229 et 1230 de 2003.
  13. Voted at the initiative of the government of Alfonsin by the members of Parliament from all sectors combined, and accepted by the political actors, because the law called endpoint envisaged benefits for the members of the armed groups. The national consensus was very high.
  14. Law 24952, exemption laws 23492 et 23521 http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/50000- 54999/50364/norma.htm, then by Law 25779, declare null and void laws 23492 and 23521 (although you can only waive laws and not cancel its) http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/85000-89999/88140/norma.htm
  15. The general amnesty of 1973 of the Campora ‘s government benfiting more than thousand people, as well as the decree of grace n°11/73 intended for the 371 people accused or condemned for terrorist acts, were never called into question.
  16. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/70000-74999/70794/norma.htm and decisions CSJ 21-06-1988 : Barda, Pedro Alberto ; Application de la loi dit du point final : Pedro Alberto Barda ; 22-06-1987 : Camps, Ramon Juan etd’autres : Constitutionnalité des lois 23040, 23049 et du devoir d’Obéissance, amnisties; 11/02/1988 : Joffre, Julia. Point Final ; 29/03/1988 : Esma ; Constitutionnalité devoir d’obéissance, 06/04/1993 : Lopez Fader, Rafael Felix : Loi point finale ; 13/08/1998 : Suarez Mason, Carlos Guillermo : Point final, devoir d’obéissance
  17. CSP, 24/08/2004, Arancibia Clavel, Enrique Lautaro http://www.mpf.gov.ar/Institucional/UnidadesFE/Arancibia­Clavel-CSJN.pdf , et CSJ, décision du 14/06/2005, dans l’affaire Simon, déclare la nullité des lois d’amnisties et son effet rétroactif http://www.mpf.gov.ar/Institucional/UnidadesFE/Simon-CSJN.pdf, and the foundations of Decree 1581/2001 of International Cooperation in Criminal Matters, http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/70000-  74999/70794/norma.htm
  18. Complaints against judges of the dictatorship by Mères de Place de Mai http://www.lafogata.org/proyecto/judicial.htm, http://www.elmartillojudicial.com.ar/2011/05/03/denuncia-de-hebe-de-bonafini/ http://www.madres.org/proyecto/archivo poder judicial.htm
  19. http://www.clarin.com/politica/Imputaron-Boudou-enriquecimiento-ilicito 0 700130151.html Boudu, Amado, Vice­President of Argentina accused in the case Ciccone.
  20. Righi should explain in court on his responsibility under the government of Campora and his links with the terrorist group Montoneros in the 70s.
  21. http://www.perfil.com/contenidos/2012/03/23/noticia 0015.html Juge Oyarbide
  22. http://www.perfil.com/contenidos/2011/07/27/noticia 0038.html Juge Zaffaroni
  23. http://www.lahistoriaparalela.com.ar/2009/06/26/grave-denuncia-contra-el-juez-sergio-torres/ Juge Torres,
  24. http://acij.org.ar/wp-content/uploads/Denuncia_Bonadio_Final.pdf et
    http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1- 41194-2004-09-18.html Juge Bonadio
  25. http://poderciudadano.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/CPI table Embargoed-until-01.01-AM-CET 01-December­2011-1.pdf , http://poderciudadano.org/2011/12/indice-de-percepcion-de-la-corrupcion-2011/ , Rapport Transparency International, Argentina to 100th place out of 182 countries
  26. Justice and corruption http://worldjusticeproject.org/sites/default/files/wjproli2011 0.pdf , pages 25, 41 http://ambito.com/noticia.asp?id=587371&seccion=Pol%EDtica&fecha=13/06/2011
  27. http://www.anticorrupcion.gov.ar/documentos/Informe%20anual%202011.pdf Rapport OA 2011, pages 22-45
  28. http://www.clarin.com/politica/Iglesia-preocupada-niveles-importantes-corrupcion 0 680932125.html
  29. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1473104-queremos-preguntar-el-reclamo-de-lanata-para-la-presidenta et http://www.infobae.com/notas/648499-Periodistas-reclaman-que-se-respete-su-derecho-a-saber-de-que-se-trata.html
  30. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-191277-2012-04-06.html Vice-president attacks media http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1434308-el-gobierno-redobla-su-ofensiva-en-la-justicia , http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1434398-lo-que-esta-en-juego-es-la-libertad , http://www.clarin.com/politica/Cristina-atacar­columnistas-Clarin-Nacion 0 662334000.html Cristina attacked columnists Clarin and La Nacion «..nazis, antisemitas. »
  31. http://www.clarin.com/politica/Hebe-Bonafini-anuncio-Grupo-Clarin 0 603539764.html
  32. http://www.sipiapa.org/v4/det_resolucion.php?asamblea=48&resid=716&idioma=sp , http://www.wan-ifra.org/press¬releases/2011/12/23/wan-ifra-condemns-argentine-newsprint-law, http://fopea.org/ Rapport 2011 http://informe2011.fopea.org/,122 attacks against journalists (p 39-101), and against freedom of expression (p 109-140)
  33. http://www.cij.gov.ar/nota-9889-Lesa-humanidad--el-juez-Lijo-condeno-a-dos-acusados-y-dispuso-el-archivo-de-la¬causa-contra-Gerardo-Martinez.html et http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-203977-2012-09-22.html
  34. http://internacional.elpais.com/internacional/2012/08/01/actualidad/1343845365351907.html/ , http://noticiasmontreal.com/56025/en-argentina-autorizan-salidas-de-presos-para-participar-en-actos-politicos-a-favor¬del-gobierno/ , http://www.elobservador.com.uy/noticia/229252/presos-argentinos-participaron-en-actos-politicos-kirchneristas/ , http://www.ellitoral.com/index.php/diarios/2012/07/31/politica/POLI-04.html
  35. http://www.derhuman.jus.gov.ar/pdfs/Papel_prensa_querellaysintesis.pdf Government complaint against the media, control of newsprint. Complaint against the owner of the newspaper Clarin, Ms. Noble
  36. Companies under the dictatorship http://notas.desaparecidos.org/2012/04/kicillof ahora prepara una ofe.html Ford, Mercedes Benz, Fiat, Banco de Italia, First Bank of America.http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-190074- 2012-03-21.html and the case of two companies http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-190075-2012-03-21.html Ledesma company CEO : http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1471912-la-justicia-indagara-al-empresario-blaquier
  37. http://www.asocmagistra.org.ar/comunicaciones_view.php?cID=245&tID=3 et http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1118834- piden-a-la-corte-que-repudie-una-denuncia-del-gobierno
  38. See below:
    1.  A/RES/56/83, décembre 2001, Responsabilité de l’Etat pour fait internationalement illicite, http://www.un.org/french/documents/viewdoc.asp?symbol=A/RES/56/83&Lang=F et http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/francais/commentaires/9_6_2001_francais.pdf,
    2. A/RES/60/147, décembre 2005: Principes fondamentaux et directives concernant le droit à un recours et à réparation des victimes de violations flagrantes du droit international des droits de l’homme et de violation graves du droit international humanitaire http://www.un.org/french/documents/view doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/60/147,
    3. A/RES/40/34, novembre 1985: Déclaration des principes fondamentaux de justice relatifs aux victimes de la criminalité et aux victimes d’abus de pouvoir http://www.un.org/french/documents/view doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/40/34,
    4. A/RES/53/144, décembre 1998: Déclaration sur le droit et la responsabilité des individus, groupes et organes de la société de promouvoir et protéger les droits de l’homme et les libertés fondamentales universellement reconnus
      http://www.un.org/french/documents/view doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/53/144,
    5. E/CN.15/1996/18/, mai 1996: CES. Règles et Normes des Nations Unies dans le domaine de la prévention du crime et de la justice pénale. Elaboration de règles minima concernant l'administration de la justice pénale, http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/commissions/CCPCJ/session/05.html,
    6. A/RES/45/111, décembre 1990: Principes fondamentaux relatifs au traitement des détenus,
      http://www.un.org/french/documents/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/45/111 et
      http://www2.ohchr.org/french/law/traitement.htm